Fazlur Rahman Khan Bio, Born, Age, Death, Facts, Family, Secrets, Trivia, Updates,
- Name: Fazlur Rahman Khan
- Date of Birth: born on the 3rd April 1929
- Status: father of tubular designs
Why Fazlur Rahman Khan is Legend of Bangladesh?
Fazlur Rahman Khan which is pronounced as Foziur Rohman Khan is Bengali (3 April 1929-27 March 1982) was a structural engineer and architect of Bangladeshi-American origin, who pioneered the significant structural systems for high rise buildings known as skyscrapers. He is considered the father of tubular designs for skyscrapers, Fazlur Rahman Khan was also one of the groundbreakers in computer aided designs (CAD), one of his major designs is the Sears Tower and was later renamed as Willis Towers, record-setting tallest building in the world from 1973 until 1998, and the John Hancock Center which is an100 story building.
Fazlur Rahman Khan brought about the rebirth in high rise building construction during the second half of the 20th century. The world was amazed at his work and called him the Einstein of Structural engineering and the Greatest Structural Engineer of the 20th century for his groundbreaking use of structural systems that stands today as the foundation of the modern skyscraper design and construction. In to pay their respect the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat created the Fazlur Rahman Khan Lifetime Achievement Medal, as one of the Awards to outstanding engineers.
Early Life of Fazlur Rahman Khan
Fazlur Rahman Khan was born on the 3rd April 1929 in India when it was colonized by Britain, later East Pakistan which is now Bangladesh. He grew up in Bhandarikandii village, in the Faridpur District near Dhaka. His father Abdur Rahman Khan who happens to be a high school mathematics teacher and author of several textbooks. He later went on to become the Director of Public Instruction in the region of Bengal and when he retired, he served as the Principal of Jagannath College in Dhaka.
Fazlur Rahman Khan attended Armanitola Government High School, in Dhaka. He then went on to study Civil Engineering I Bengal Engineering and Science University in Shibpur which is Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shubpur in present-day India. He earned his Bachelor of Civil Engineering degree from Ahsanullah Engineering College, the University of Dhaka which is now Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology. He received a joint American Fulbright and Pakistani Scholarship to travel to the United States and study at the University of Illinois in Chicago. The city of Chicago became the foundation for Khan’s greatest innovations, two of his most famous buildings have become Chicago staples. Within a short period of three years, Fazlur Rahman Khan bagged two master’s degrees, one in structural engineering and the other in theoretical and applied mechanics and also a Ph.D. in structural engineering with a thesis titled Analytical study of relations among various design criteria for rectangular prestressed concrete beams. In 1967, due to his excellence, he was nominated to become a citizen of the United States.
Career of Fazlur Rahman Khan
He then left the US for a short time to go to Pakistan. He was employed as the executive engineer for the prestigious Karachi Development Authority. However, he became disappointed about the limitations attached to the position, he wanted more time and space to do what he does best which is design. He then returned to the United States in 1955 and join Skidmore, Owings & Merrill in Chicago. After some years, he became a partner in 1966. He then became a naturalized citizen of United States in 1967. During the 1960s and 1970s, he became popular due to his designs for the city of Chicago’s 100-story John Hancock Center and 110-story Sears Tower later renamed Willis Tower, which was the tallest building in the world 1973 until 1998.
He had the view that engineers need a broader perspective on life, in his words saying “The technical man must not be lost in his own technology, he must be able to appreciate life and life is art, drama, music and most importantly people.”
Khan found out that the dominating structural design for the construction of high rise building which was the rigid steel frame structure was not the only workable system, this discovery marked the beginning of a new era of skyscraper revolution in terms of multiple structural systems. Fazlur Rahman Khan’s inventions in designs greatly enhanced the construction of high rise buildings, allowing them to absorb a tremendous amount of force yielded on these gigantic structures. These new innovative designs paved way for more profits and opportunities for contractors, engineers, architects, and investors, providing a great way to maximize space for real estate in very little land space.
Tube Structural systems
The idea behind Fazlur Rahman Khan’s skyscraper design and construction is the tube structural system for high rise building which includes a framed tube, trussed tube, and bundled tube variations. The Tube idea is based on using all the exterior wall perimeter structure of the building to simulate a thin-walled tube. The World Trade Center, Petronas Towers, and Jin Mao building were all built using the tube structural system.
From 1963 the structural system for framed tubes became prominent in the design and construction of a skyscraper. Fazlur Rahman Khan defined the framed tube structure as a “three-dimensional space structure composed of three, four or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation.” The DeWitt Chestnut Apartments was the pioneer building to integrate the framed tube construction. It was designed by Fazlur Rahman Khan and completed in Chicago in 1963.
Trussed tube and x-bracing
The trussed tube was one of the groundbreaking concepts by Fazlur Rahman Khan which was first used by the John Hancock Center. The idea reduced the lateral load on the building by distributing the load into the exterior columns. The John Hancock Center was designed in 1965 and concluded in 1969. The X bracing enables a tall structure to be efficient. The attributes such as skin designed by Fazlur Rahman Khan have made the John Hancock Center an architectural masterpiece.
List of buildings
Some of the most famous buildings F.R. Khan was responsible for performing as a structural engineer include the following:
- DeWitt-Chestnut Apartments, Chicago, 1963
- John Hancock Center, Chicago, 1965–1969
- Sears Tower, Chicago, 1970–1973
- Hajj Terminal, King Abdulaziz International Airport, Jeddah, 1974–1980
- King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 1977–1978
- One Magnificent Mile, Chicago, completed 1983
- Onterie Center, Chicago, completed 1986
- U.S. Bank Center, Milwaukee, 1973
Awards of Fazlur Rahman Khan
- Wason Medal 1971
- Alfred Lindau Award 1973 American Concrete Institute ACI
- Thomas Middlebrooks Award 1972
- Ernest Howard Award 1997 ASCE
- Kimbrough Medal 1973 American Institute of Steel Construction
- Oscar Faber Medal 1973 Institution of Structural Engineers London
- International Award of Merit in Structural Engineering 1983 International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering IABSE
- AIA Institute Honor for Distinguished Achievement 1983 American Institute of Architects
- John Palmer Awards 1987 Structural Engineers Association of Illinois.
Fazlur Rahman Khan died of a heart attack on March 27, 1982, while on vacation in Jeddah in Saudi Arabia; he died at the age of 52. Until his death he was a partner in SOM, he was the only qualified engineer occupying that high profile as of that time. The body was then returned to the United States and was buried in Chicago.
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